Adipose Tissue-Derived Stem Cells for Therapy: Current Applications, Sources and More
Fat cells, also known as adipocytes, are the primary components of adipose tissue, which is the scientific term for fat.
Due to their abilities to self-renew and differentiate along multiple cell lineages, as well as their potency to regulate the immune system by secreting anti-inflammatory cytokines and growth factors, Adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs) are believed to be key players in the therapy for various diseases, such as multiple sclerosis, diabetes mellitus, and more.
Adipose tissue, commonly used in cosmetic stem cell therapies, can be typically located near the lower abdomen and inner thigh regions. This tissue is said to contain adult stem cells, which can be extracted and isolated with a closed-system mini-liposuction. Subsequently, these fat stem cells are expanded with cell culturing medium over the course of several days before being reintroduced into the patient for treatments such as peripheral neuropathy, heart attacks, strokes and Coronary artery disease (CAD).
Major Sources of Adipose Tissue Stem Cells for the Treatment
Adipose tissue, commonly referred to as fat, contains stem cells which can be exploited for their therapeutic potential in regenerative medicine and tissue engineering. The main sources of adipose tissues for stem cell treatment are:
- Abdominal Fat: The abdominal area is a common source of adipose tissue for stem cell extraction. Liposuction techniques can target excess fat in this region.
- Thighs and Buttocks: Adipose tissue from the thighs and buttocks can also be collected through liposuction procedures.
- Tummy Tucks (Abdominoplasty): During tummy tuck procedures, excess skin and fat are removed from the abdominal area. This can provide a source of adipose tissue for stem cell extraction.
- Cryopreservation: Adipose tissue collected during liposuction or other procedures can be processed and stored in tissue banks for future use. This allows for easy access to adipose-derived stem cells when needed for treatments.
Some Exceptional Key Features of Adipose Stem Cells Tissues
Abundance: A large quantity of adipose tissue can be found in the human body, making it a readily accessible source of stem cells.
Multipotent: ADSCs, similar to other MSCs, have the ability to differentiate into various cells, for example adipocytes (fat cells), osteocytes (bone cells), chondrocytes (cartilage cells), and myocytes (muscle cells), as well as others.
Can easily be harvested: Liposuction, a relatively simple and minimally invasive procedure, can be used to acquire ADSCs.
Have immunomodulatory properties: ADSCs have the potential to regulate immune responses, making them ideal for treatments of illnesses related to immunity.
Current Possible Applications of Adipose Stem Cells Treatments
Here are some potential applications of adipose stem cell treatments:
- Regenerative Medicine:
These stem cells possess the remarkable ability to transform into various cell types, which is beneficial for restoring tissues such as bone, cartilage, muscle and fat tissue that have been damaged.Research has shown that Adipose stem cells could be beneficial in accelerating wound healing due to their potential in promoting tissue regeneration and reducing inflammation.
- Neurological disease:
Initial research implies that ADSCs could potentially provide healing advantages for afflictions such as Alzheimer’s, Parkinson’s, and spinal cord injuries.
- Cardiovascular Conditions:
Research in the area of Adult Denovo Cardiomyocytes (ADSCs) has suggested potential in helping to restore heart tissue that has been damaged as a result of myocardial infarction (heart attack).