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Mesenchymal Stem Cell Therapy?

Mesenchymal Stem Cells (MSCs) are ideal for cell-based therapy in several inflammatory diseases due to their tissue repair and immunosuppressive properties. Compared with other cell types, the low immunogenicity and immunosuppressive properties add to a reduced or weakened immune response drawn by the implantation of allergenic MSCs. Further investigations are required to enhance the efficacy of MSCs as a cell-based therapy for tissue repair and inflammatory diseases.

MSCs are classified into various groups according to cell source. They are:

  • Adipose Tissue-derived MSCs (ASCs)
  • Bone marrow-derived MSCs (BM-MSCs) and
  • Umbilical Cord Tissue-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells (UC-MSCs)

Adipose Tissue-derived MSCs (ASCs)

Adipose tissue-derived MSCs are extracted from subcutaneous adipose tissue or fat tissue. A liposuction process can quickly harvest these cells in huge quantities with great cellular activity.

ADSCs from younger donors are probably more likely to be viable. When older individuals have an autologous surgery (using your cells), this might become problematic since the older cells might not be as well-suited for the recipient’s long-term survival. Younger donors’ adipose tissue-derived MSCs (ADSCs) have a greater proliferation rate (survivability after transplant) than older donors, but they retain their ability to differentiate, which gives them an advantage over bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSCs).

Despite their low immunogenicity and modulatory actions, ADSCs are known to retain the ability to develop into mesodermal (middle cell layer) cells. Since less than 1% of them had surface expression of the HLA-DR protein, which has immunosuppressive effects, these cells are appropriate for clinical use in allogeneic transplantation and treatments for immunological illnesses that are resistant to therapy.

The fact that ADSCs may be used in a wide range of situations is well acknowledged. Moreover, ADSCs can be a good option for the majority of orthopedic procedures. Applications such as arthritis, knee discomfort, spinal cord injuries, localized joint inflammation, and other musculoskeletal problems are frequently seen.

Nonetheless, there are still several difficulties in using ADSCs in a therapeutic context. These difficulties include restricted differentiation capacities, protocol standardization, and proliferative restrictions related to cell age.

Bone Marrow-Derived MSCs (BM-MSCs)

Due to their ability to self-renew, differentiate, and modulate immunity, bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSCs), which are categorized as multipotent adult stem cells, are frequently utilized in the treatment of a variety of disorders.

Studies conducted in vitro and in vivo have provided evidence for the mechanisms, safety, and effectiveness of BM-MSC treatment in clinical settings. Phase I and II clinical trial numbers are rising, but they are constrained by subject size restrictions, laws, and guidelines for the handling, administration, and transportation of bone marrow-derived stem cells (BMSCs). As a result, treatment outcomes and inputs are inconsistent.

Limitations

The extraction of bone marrow is an extremely intrusive and unpleasant surgery that necessitates several days of hospital stay under general anesthesia. Only 0.002% of stromal (stem) cells are BM-MSCs, making them an uncommon population whose isolation is dependent on the patient’s condition and the amount of material taken.

The amount and quality of bone marrow stem cells decrease with age, much like ADSCs. When using an allogeneic (cells from a third party) therapy, BM-MSCs from younger donors are probably more viable. When older individuals have autologous procedures, this might become problematic since the recipient’s older cells might not be as well-suited for long-term survival.

The majority of preclinical and clinical studies have demonstrated the potential of BMSCs to treat a range of illnesses with minimal side effects over follow-up times. BM-MSCs therapy is now being utilized to treat injuries sustained in sports, neurological illnesses, and osteoarthritis.

Umbilical Cord Tissue-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells (UC-MSCs)

The peri-vascular zone of the umbilical cord, Wharton’s jelly, and the cord lining are some of the sources of UC-MSCs. Since the umbilical cord is frequently discarded tissue, it is a rich source of mesenchymal stromal cells that may be collected non-invasively.

Out of the three types of stem cells described (adipose, bone marrow, and cord tissue), mesenchymal stem cells produced from umbilical cord tissue have the highest rate of proliferation and the capacity to develop into diverse cell types.

Like MSCs produced from bone marrow and adipose tissue, UC-MSCs are known to release chemokines, cytokines, and growth factors that enhance various cell healing pathways. All of these roles support MSCs’ immunomodulatory and anti-inflammatory capabilities.

Non-Invasive Cell Product

UC-MSC harvesting is a non-invasive process since the patient does not need to be extracted. The MSCs are extracted straight from a section of a human umbilical cord that has been ethically donated.

Because UC-MSCs proliferate more efficiently in vitro than BMSCs and ASCs do, it is possible to get higher cell numbers with more efficiency.

Given below table shows a comparison between Adipose Tissue-derived MSCs (ASCs), Bone marrow-derived MSCs (BM-MSCs), and Umbilical Cord Tissue-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells (UC-MSCs).

Characteristics BMSCs ADSCs UC-MSCs
Harvesting Procedure Invasive Invasive Non-invasive
Effect of age on cell quantity and quality Declines with donor age Declines with donor age Unaffected
Potency to differentiate into nerve cells Lower Lower Higher
Cell renewal capabilities Lower proliferative potential Lower proliferative potential Higher Proliferative Potential
Expression of embryonic markers Lower Lower Higher
Immune modulatory properties Good Good Good
Allogeneic cell rejection No No No
Ethical issues No No No
Risk of tumorigenicity (promoting tumor growth No No No

 

How Do Mesenchymal Stem Cells Work In The Body?

Mesenchymal stem cells use their differentiation, self-renewal, immunomodulatory, anti-inflammatory, and signaling abilities to affect good changes in the body. Additionally capable of self-renewal, mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) can divide and differentiate into a variety of specialized cell types found in a particular tissue or organ. Since mesenchymal stem cells are adult stem cells and are not derived from embryonic material, they do not raise any ethical issues.

Immunomodulatory (regulating the immune system)

By stimulating an inflammatory response when the immune system is underactivated and decreasing inflammation when the immunological system is overactivated, mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) can control the immune system. MSCs have the potential to be extremely important in avoiding autoimmune diseases when the immune system attacks the body. A 2013 research by Bernardo et al. claims that MSCs induce an immune-suppressive response to reduce inflammation and support tissue homeostasis in response to exposure to high concentrations of pro-inflammatory signals (cytokines).

Anti-inflammatory (reducing harmful inflammation)

The immune system’s reaction to an adverse external stimulus is inflammation, which also serves to support and mend the body. On the other hand, when inflammation is dysregulated, the body may suffer. Long-term immunological dysregulation can result in a number of autoimmune diseases, including lupus, multiple sclerosis, type 1 diabetes, and inflammatory bowel disease.

MSC Secretome And Extracellular Vesicles (Exosome Signaling)

Mesenchymal stem cells can replace damaged tissues and differentiate, but their restorative actions are also mediated by their secretome through paracrine processes.

The body absorbs a range of bioactive substances known as the MSC secretome, which includes cytokines, growth factors, neurotrophins, soluble proteins, lipids, and nucleic acids.

The secretomes that are produced are of growing interest as possible biomarkers and therapeutic targets in illnesses, and they play significant roles in the control of numerous physiological processes.

In comparison to bone marrow-derived (BM-MSCs) and adipose tissue-derived (AT-MSCs), UC-MSCs show increased secretion of neurotrophic factors, including bFGF, nerve growth factor (NGF), neurotrophin 3 (NT3), neurotrophin 4 (NT4), and glial-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF).

Furthermore, in comparison to BM-MSCs, UC-MSCs release much larger levels of a number of critical cytokines and hematopoietic growth factors, such as G-CSF, GM-CSF, LIF, IL-1α, IL-6, IL-8, and IL-11. This implies that UC-MSCs could have more potency than MSCs from other sources.

Homing Properties: How MSCs Know Where To Go)

Given their inherent homing qualities, mesenchymal stem cells have the potential to specifically target regions of concern, which is one of their main advantages. When mesenchymal stem cells are given systemically, their “homing” is the process by which they leave the circulation and go to the site of damage.

Differentiation: Becoming New Types of Cells)

Multipotent stem cells known as mesenchymal stem cells can self-renew and specialize into many cell types. Put differently, mesenchymal stem cells can differentiate into a wide range of cell types, such as hepatocytes, cartilage, muscle, tendon/ligament, bone, and adipose tissue.

Mesenchymal stem cells support tissue homeostasis and function, adaptability to changing metabolic or environmental demands, and tissue repair by aiding in tissue regeneration and differentiation.

To Sum Up

Numerous studies have been conducted on the processes behind mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). Their many capacities, such as self-renewal, immunomodulatory, anti-inflammatory, signaling, and differentiation features, have been described in several investigations. Because of these qualities, MSCs can be used for various degenerative disorders in a range of therapeutic contexts.

Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) produced from umbilical cord tissue (UC-MSCs) are beginning to show signs of potency compared to other sources, which might increase their therapeutic usefulness.

Utilizing mesenchymal stem cells (UC-MSCs) produced from umbilical cord tissue and obtained from an FDA-compliant laboratory, Stem Cell Care India offers enhanced stem cell therapy. Many autoimmune disorders, including Parkinson’s, Crohn’s disease, multiple sclerosis, and others, can be treated by Stem Cell Care India.

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