- Totipotent stem cells (also known as omnipotent stem cells)
These are the strongest stem cells available. They have the ability to differentiate into embryonic and extra-embryonic tissues such the chorion, yolk sac, amnion, and allantois. These tissues make up the placenta in humans and other placental animals.
The ability of a totipotent cell to produce a fully functioning, live creature is its most significant feature.
- Pluripotent Stem Cells (PSCs)
The pluripotent stem cell is the next most powerful kind of stem cell.
This cell type is significant because it has the ability to self-renew and develop into any of the three germ layers: ectoderm, endoderm, and mesoderm. These three germ layers subsequently differentiate to produce all of a person’s tissues and organs.
Pluripotent stem cells come in a variety of forms. Embryonic stem cells are the finest example of natural pluripotent stem cells. Embryonic stem cells are one-of-a-kind cells found in the early stages of an embryo.
- Multipotent Stem Cells
Multipotent stem cells are a kind of stem cell that can self-renew and develop into a variety of cell types in the centre of the spectrum.
The mesenchymal stem cell is an outstanding example of this cell type (MSC). Because the properties of these cells are so varied, mesenchymal stem cells are categorised as multipotent stem cells.
- Oligopotent Cells (OPCs)
The next kind of stem cells, oligopotent cells, are similar to multipotent stem cells in that they have a limited ability to develop; they can self-renew and differentiate, but only to a limited degree. They can only do so into cell types that are closely related.
Myeloid cells include basophils, dendritic cells, eosinophils, erythrocytes, macrophages, megakaryocytes, monocytes, neutrophils, and platelets, while lymphoid cells include B cells, T cells, and natural kill cells.
- Unipotent Stem Cells (Unipotent Stem Cells)
Finally, there are unipotent stem cells, which are the least potent and restricted stem cell kind. Muscle stem cells can self-renew and develop, but only into one cell type at a time. In terms of differentiation, they are unidirectional.