How Effective Is Stem Cell Therapy for Stroke

How Effective Is Stem Cell Therapy for Stroke

When the fresh oxygenated blood supply to the brain gets suddenly disrupted due to a ruptured blood vessel or blood clots, the brain cells die leading to a stroke. Some of the symptoms of a stroke are sudden numbness or weakness on one side of the body, trouble speaking, dizziness, loss of limb coordination, disturbed vision in one or both eyes, loss of balance while walking, and severe headache. If an individual exhibits such symptoms, cell therapy for stroke is the most suitable treatment to stop further dire consequences and to regain brain plasticity.

Causes

  • Obesity
  • Smoking
  • High blood pressure and cholesterol
  • Diabetes
  • Heart ailments, such as blood clot and irregular heart rhythm that can lead to stroke
  • Family history of stroke
  • A previous history of stroke or mini-stroke

After-effect of stroke

Although stroke caused due to the damaged brain, it affects the entire body. This may result in a complete paralysis on one side of the body, also known as hemiplegia. The effect of stroke causes problems with cognition skill, attention, learning disability, and memory loss. Stroke patients face problems understanding or forming speech that leads to emotional issues. They also experience depression, numbness, strange sensations of pain which is worse in areas like the hands and feet.

Treatment

Treatment for stroke depend on factors such as its type and severity. The sooner is the individual receives help after a stroke, there is a better chance for a quick recovery. The three main types of stroke are:

Ischemic (Clots)

An Ischemic stroke occurs when the blood vessels that supply blood to the brain get obstructed due to clots or the fatty deposits lining the vessel walls (atherosclerosis).

Hemorrhagic (Haemorrhage)

Hemorrhagic stroke is triggered by blood vessels that rupture and haemorrhage resulting in blood accumulation and compression of the surrounding brain tissue. The two types of hemorrhagic strokes are subarachnoid and intracerebral haemorrhage.

Transient Ischemic Attack (TIA)

A Transient Ischemic Attack is a temporary blockage of the blood flow that does not cause permanent damage, but at times is a signal for a major stroke ahead.

The treatment comprises of cell therapy and post-stroke rehabilitation therapies. Cell treatment is aimed at treating the underlying symptoms by replacing the damaged tissue caused by bleeding and blood clots. The main goal of stroke treatment with stem cells is to restore the normal blood flow to the brain. Stem cells extracted from the marrow-derived from the patient’s hip bone has the potential to replace the damaged neurons and to self-renew indefinitely for years. With the properties of division and regeneration, they help to repair the cells and tissue of the brain and blood vessels.

Process

Cell therapy for stroke is accomplished by using stem cells derived from the bone marrow of the patient. The surgical procedure followed by the neurosurgeons involves: The extraction of 80 to 120 ml of marrow tissue from the hip bone of the patient using an aspiration needle. The extracted marrow tissue undergoes a density gradient centrifugation procedure to separate the required stem cells from the unwanted tissue. These stem cells subjected to a quality check at the laboratory. These stem cells are intrathecally injected into the spinal area of the patient from where they travel to the damaged areas of the brain with the help of cerebrospinal fluid. They reach the tissue site and activate their repairing process to replace the dead or damaged cells. During the healing process, they repair the damaged blood vessels and restore the constant flow of blood supply to the brain. Post-stroke, cell treatment, rehabilitation therapies help in overcoming the disabilities. Depending on the severity of the damage, individuals are advised speech therapy, physiotherapy, and diet counselling to help them regain their lost abilities. Cell therapy for stroke is the most suitable treatment to stop further dire consequences and to regain brain plasticity.

New hope with stem cell treatment

Until now the chances of surviving a stroke and further Stroke Treatment depends how fast a patient gets medical attention. However, providing medical aid within minutes is not always possible, so patients are administered with traditional treatment options. Rigorous physical therapy is administered to help regain lost functionalities of the body, but still there is no complete Stroke Treatment option for reinstating the cells of the brain, which died because of the stroke. However, with Stem Cell Therapy this problem can get a permanent solution, as this kind of therapy intends to replace damaged cells and put healthy cells in their place, so that the affected part can function normally, or at least the damage done is minimized to improve condition of the patient. Stem Cell Therapy research also aims at making such treatment fully safe and effective for patients so researchers always keep an eye on the effects or even side effects that occur after injecting stem cells into a patient’s body.

Does Stem Cell Therapy Work For Stroke Patients?

How Does Stem Cell Therapy Work For Stroke Patients?

A stroke ensues when the blood supply to one or more portions of the brain is abridged or totally choked. The obstruction might be provisional or perpetual and it can be instigated in two diverse ways:

  • In ischaemic stroke a blood clot hinders the supply of blood to the brain
  • In hemorrhagic stroke a blood vessel spurts and bleeds into the brain

All portions of the brain need to have a good blood supply to work appropriately. When the movement of blood is restricted or clogged, important nutrients and oxygen cannot reach the cells in the brain and they are impaired or they die. The effects on the body depend on which portion of the brain is impaired and how long the obstruction remains. A stroke can affect movement, speech, thought progressions and memory. It can cause paralysis in one or more portions of the body, or loss of control of physical functions. Around 40% of people affected by stroke will have perpetual symptoms that lead to them requiring special care. Various folks’ symptoms improve considerably after a stroke, but only around 10% of patients recover completely. Anybody of any age can have a stroke, but there are some vital risk factors. The probability of having a stroke upsurges with age, for instance. Certain ethnic groups are more in jeopardy and a family history of stroke upsurges the chance that you might be affected. There are also risk elements that we might reduce through lifestyle modifications like making certain any high blood pressure is cured, eating a healthy diet low in fat and salt, ending smoking and staying physically energetic.

What causes a stroke?

A stoke can be instigated by a loss of blood supply to the brain (ischemic) or a hemorrhage (bleeding within the brain).

Stroke can be treated with stem cells

Stroke is the third principal cause of demise in the U.S. and the leading reason of serious, long-standing adult disability. Every year, over 700,000 people have a stroke; 75% of these are first attacks. Knowing the cautionary signs and acting rapidly are our preeminent defenses against stroke. After a stroke, millions of brain neurons expire within minutes. While the deceased cells can’t be reinstated, some tissue around the deceased zone remains active but non-functioning. While stem cells are still being used in clinical trials, there is proof that joined with clot busting and mechanical thrombectomy, therapy augments retrieval. Stem cells injected into distant arteries or veins travel to the location of a stroke in the brain to fuel the repair procedure. The optimum time for introducing stem cells appears to be between 36 and 72 hours after the stroke. Investigation has found that stem cells target the region with chemicals that save and revitalize that tissue. The optimal time for introducing stem cells seems to be between 36 and 72 hours after the stroke. Although the study involved a trivial number of patients, outcomes were promising enough to plan on a bigger study. Strokes impair big regions of the brain. Although therapies and stem cell treatments might aid to reestablish patients’ motor function and repair portions of the brain, severely impaired areas might be enduringly devastated.

How does stem cell therapy work?

Stem cell therapy is a non-invasive treatment that targets to replace impaired cells within the body. Mesenchymal stem cells can be deployed systemically through IV or injected locally to target particular sites, contingent on patient requirements. Stem cells might have the capability to help stroke patients via their anti-inflammatory and immunoregulatory competences.  Stem cell therapy is a safe treatment for stroke.  Stem cell treatment might also help in stroke retrieval if administered early.

Can stem cells help stroke victims?

If you ask does stem cell therapy work for stroke patients, stem cells have a naturally regenerative and anti-inflammatory effect, looking out for impaired tissue in the body. For this reason, Stanford University School of Medicine turned to stem cells for clinical trials in curing stroke victims of diverse ages, anywhere from 6 months to 3 years after their stroke had befallen. The trial encompassed 18 individuals, an average age of 61, and used stem cell transplant therapy straight to the brain.  The stem cells in the study are derived from donor bone marrow. Within months, all partakers exhibited signs of enhanced motor function. The patients displayed an average upsurge in 11.4 points on the Fugl-Meyer Assessment, a stroke-specific damage test and the outcomes held for years after treatment as supervised by the university. This trial made marvelous strides in proving that stem cells could effectually treat stroke symptoms years after a patient’s stroke incidence, and could also be effective at any age. Intravenous injection of allogeneic mesenchymal stem cells can both be a safe and effective treatment choice for post-stroke long-term retrieval.