The Amplifying Importance Of Stem Cell Therapy In Covid-19
Since its outbreak in China, novel coronavirus disease (COVID‐19) has been testified in maximum of the nations and territories (>200) globally. In maximum of the nations, COVID‐19 surge is unrestrained with a substantial mortality rate. Presently, no treatment effective for COVID‐19 is accessible in the form of vaccines or antiviral drugs and patients are presently cured symptomatically. Although, the majority of the patients develops mild symptoms and recuperates without mechanical ventilation for respiratory administration, severe respiratory disease develops in a substantial part of affected patients and might lead to death. While the scientific community is working to develop vaccines and medicines against the COVID‐19 pandemic, novel alternate therapies might decrease the mortality rate. Recent usage of stem cells for analytically ill COVID‐19 patients in a trivial group of patients in China and subsequent emergency usage authorization of stem cells by Food and Drug Administration to Global Institute of Stem Cell Therapy and Research and Athersys has generated enthusiasm amid the medical community. Consequently, various clinical trials have been registered using stem cells for COVID‐19 treatment that aim to use different cell sources, dosage and significantly varied targeted patient groups. In this brief review, the potentials of stem cell usage in COVID‐19 patients and pertinent challenges in their usage have been discussed.
Novel coronavirus disease (COVID‐19) is bourgeoning rapidly worldwide and had been proclaimed pandemic by the World Health Organization on March 11, 2020. Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS‐CoV)‐19, the virus accountable for COVID‐19 is an encased, positive sense, single‐stranded RNA virus of the family Coronaviridae (Zhou, Yang, & Wang, 2020). It causes mild respiratory tract infection, fever, and cough in maximum of the patients. However, in a momentous portion of the affected patients, these symptoms are together with pneumonia and severe acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Consequently, COVID‐19 is presently related with a high mortality rate. Considering the widespread and constant upsurge in patient numbers and occasioning in considerable deaths, novel therapeutic strategies are needed to reduce the mortality rate and to make the retrieval better. Stem cell‐based regenerative medicine therapy might be an alternative for COVID‐19 patients. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), a kind of adult stem cells are found in numerous autologous and allogenic sources and have high proliferative potential and multilinage differentiation capability. Preceding studies have shown that the immunomodulatory properties of MSCs aid in modulation of proliferation, activation, and function of numerous immune cells. Importance of stem cell therapy in covid-19 is very high.
The usage of stem cells in COVID‐19 patients at the start of the pandemic proposes potential benefits for patients. Likewise, the FDA has lately granted EUA of stem cells for COVID‐19 patients. Considering preliminary favorable outcomes in a small group of critically ill COVID‐19 patients, numerous clinical trials have been recorded using MSCs. These stem cell‐based trials for COVID‐19 will assess diverse sources, numbers and patient groups for treatment. It is consequently vital to comprehend the logic, allied mechanisms and challenges for a prosperous stem cell therapy for COVID‐19 patients. As there is incomplete obtainable data about stem cell use for COVID‐19 patients, the review has discussed a number of pertinent implications vital for understanding the logic, related mechanisms and pertinent difficulties for a fruitful stem cell therapy for COVID‐19. The discussion of some pertinent challenges and the stem cell‐based acellular therapies will be of specific interest for readers. Older COVID‐19 patients with comorbidities like diabetes, asthma and heart diseases are also in hazard as the highest morbidity was observed in this group. The immune system and regenerative potential of these patients are negotiated with proceeding age and disease, occasioning in this segment of the population being severely hit by a coronavirus. Because of a conceded immune system in such patients, antibody production takes a lengthier time to combat the coronavirus and the patients often develop critical disorders of pneumonia and ARDS. Stem cell therapy might be predominantly beneficial for such patients as the probabilities of recovery in such patients are considerably low. It is relevant to mention that stem cell administration in this group of patients might also improve underlying illnesses.
Stem cells are unspecialized cells in the body that have the potential to make more stem cells and also segregate into specialized cells of the body if suitable signals are given in vitro or in vivo. Embryonic stem cells (ESCs) can be isolated from the internal cell mass of 5–8 days old embryos and have high regenerative potential. However, the clinical usage of ESCs is constrained because of a number of religious, ethical and legal disputes. Adult stem cells can be isolated from neonatal sources (like cord blood, cord tissue, placenta and menstrual blood) and also from adult tissues (like bone marrow, adipose tissue, dental pulp and peripheral blood) are used for these purposes. MSCs, kind of adult stem cells, are a special emphasis of stem cell‐related therapies presently because of their immunomodulatory and regenerative potential.