What are stem cells?
Stem cells are the round and small cells that come with a squat nucleus and scant which surrounds the cytoplasm. Although, the appearance of the stem cell is unremarkable, the stem cells can still perform the act of biological resurrection.
What is the purpose of stem cells?
Undoubtedly the cells of the body come with a life span of their own, whereas the stem cells come with no limited lifespan. The stem cells are the cells that reproduce forever and don’t die post a certain determined duration. The immortal nature of stem cells make them the right and fitting treatment for the right cure for plenty of diseases. The stem cells can turn into ordinary blood cell like the red blood cell, as well as white blood cell, or it can also turn into a large cell which fragments well into the platelets that are needed for the blood to clot.
Small number of stem cells can repopulate the complete bone marrow and provide you with an endless supply of stem cells, the entire repertoire of the blood cells and restoration is all taken care of by the stem cells.
Where are stem cells acquired from?
Generaly, these miraculous cells are obtained from the blood stream. To affirm enough recruitment of stem cells in the blood, stem cells are acquired from the specific region which is the bone marrow site and thereby coaxed to enter the blood stream which is called peripheral blood.
What is Peripheral Blood Stem cell transplant?
Peripheral blood stem cell transplants, or PBSCT’s, is the procedure which helps restore the cells that have suffered damage and destruction due to any of the reasons, mainly due to high dose of chemotherapy that is done during any cancer treatment.
Stem cells are the cells which give rise to the blood cells, the red blood cells which help carry oxygen, the white blood cells which are highly helpful in fighting infections, and the platelets help make the blood clot. Though most of the stem cell treatment in India involve bone marrow, some of them are out circulating, in the blood stream, the peripheral blood stream. The stem cells from peripheral blood stream can be collected and then transfused in the patient’s to restore the stem cell reserve. Most stem cell transplants, most of them but not all can be used for PBSCT, and this is for a number of reasons. Prior to opting for stem cell treatment in Delhi, the donors are given a medication that helps increase the number of stem cells in the blood. The peripheral blood stem cells work well as compared to bone marrow transplants, and the fact, that some cases may even lead and results in the platelets and also a type of white blood cell variant which is known as neutrophils “taking” even better, when the donor is not related to the recipient.
Stem Cell Transplant Process
Peripheral Stem cell procedure takes about three months to conclude, which is inclusive of the initiation of the procedure to conclusion and beyond. The steps include-
Mobilization – The mobilization process strives to acquire as many stem cells as possible from the bone marrow and transfer them into the bloodstream as the accumulation site. G-csf injection handles the process of stem cell mobilization, either alone as a single unit or in combination with other agents. G-csf is a stem cell growth factor that is responsible in gradually increasing the count of stem cells in the bone marrow, which in turn means an increase in the stem cells into the bloodstream. After a few days from injecting the g-csf injection a Mozobil is administered. The role of Mozobil is to mobilize the stem cells from the bone marrow into the circulating blood. The combination of these two, mozobil and G-csf is known to significantly bring about growth in the number of stem cells for collection. The patient undergoes apheresis, which is a process of collection of stem cells.
Collection of stem cells – The goal of apheresis or stem cells collection process is to ensure that maximum stem cells are acquired in the fewest number of sessions. The blood is then collected and circulated with the help of a machine. This machine is known to separate and then collect the stem cells, the remaining blood components are returned to the body and the useful stem cells which get accumulated are stored. The ideal transfer rate is about 2 to 5 million stem cells per kilogram of body weight. Transplanting atleast 2 million stem cells in one go points towards efficiency. The procedure is continued until cd34 positive stem cells are achieved.
Chemotherapy – Post the patient’s touch down with the target no. of stem cells, the patient undergoes chemotherapy that helps treat cancer, and also has an effect on the immune system. Post the stabilization of the patient, the stem cells are transplanted back into patient through the intravenous process. The stem cells then migrate back into the bone marrow for about a period of 10 to 30 days. The stem cells are sure to increase in number and develop into platelets and neutrophils over the course of time.
Transplant of stem cells – The success of a transplant is measured by the durable restoration of the immune system, along with neutrophil engraftment.
Engraftment of stem cells – The engraftment stem cell engraftment travels through the blood to the bone marrow. This place is the site to develop new white blood cells, red blood cells, and platelets.
The medical treatment is highly effective in replacing all of these intensive and complicated cells. Peripheral blood stem cell in India can be utilized in case of platelet transfusions, the red blood cell transfusions, and also act as a medications which effectively stimulates formation of both red blood cells as well as white blood cells, but what needs to be noted here is that it is very intensive and difficult with plenty of side effects and complications associated with it.
Chemotherapy is amongst the major reason to opt for stem cell transplant. The chemotherapy is a process in which the cells are delivered in high doses to effectively destroy the cancer cells and also the stem cell present in bone marrow. Stem cell transplants in India helps restore the bone marrow issue so that the patient can tolerate the heavy doses of chemotherapy.
Types of stem cell transplant
There are three types of stem cell transplant that are being highly used:-
Autologous transplants: In this variant the patient will receive the stem cell from their own stem cells.
Allogeneic transplants: It is the stem cell transplant variant in which the patients receive stem cells from their sibling, relative or parents.
Syngeneic transplants: the transplant in which the patients receive stem cells from their identical twin is the one which is called syngeneic transplant.
Donating Peripheral Blood Stem Cells
Peripheral blood stem cell transplant in India involves taking and circulating the blood stem cells, rather than cells from the bone marrow, so there’s no pain in accessing the bone marrow. But in PBSC, the medication is the one booster of stem cells, the donor’s circulation can be highly associated and connected with body aches, muscle aches, headaches, and flu-like symptoms. The side effects of the stem cell transplant generally stops in a few days after the last dose of the stem-cell-boosting medication.
There are many possible complications of Peripheral blood stem cell transplant in Delhi. The high dose of chemotherapy which is done before the transplant procedure poses a serious risk which can lead to infection due to lack of white blood cells as well as the problems related with lack of blood cells the red blood cells which is known as anemia also the lack of platelets can occur.