Stem cells are a fundamental part of life formation…We, humans are polymorphic characters with diverse shapes, sizes but with the same origin. All of us are made by the blending of two cells called the “ovum” and the “sperm cells”. Thus only two cells are accountable for forming a whole organism. This conception has laid a foundation for the terrific era of “Regenerative Medicine”. In this era,due to the enormousprogressions in the cellular biology, we are on the threshold of reconnoitering “Biological solutions to Biological problems”. These stem cells are unspecialized cells with an astonishingaptitude to self-renew and are adept of segregating into tissue specific cells of the body. When called for an action by the body at the time of damage these cell undergo division giving rise to one daughter cell and one ancestor cell which is an transitional committed cell type formed before it completelysegregate into specific cell type. Stem cells are classified by their potential to separate into other types of cells. The cataloging includes:
- Totipotent – the aptitude to segregate into all possible cell types. Specimens are the zygote formed at egg fertilization and the first few cells that arise from the division of the zygote.
- Pluripotent – the aptitude to segregate into practically all cell categories. Specimens include embryonic stem cells and cells that are derived from the mesoderm, endoderm, and ectoderm germ layers that are formed in the commencement stages of embryonic stem cell differentiation.
- Multipotent – the aptitude to segregate into a closely related family of cells. Specimens include hematopoietic (adult) stem cells that can become red and white blood cells or platelets.
- Oligopotent – the aptitude to segregate into a few cells. Specimens include (adult) lymphoid or myeloid stem cells.