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A Basic Overview to Wharton’s Jelly Mesenchymal Stem Cells

Wharton’s Jelly Mesenchymal Stem Cells

Wharton’s Jelly stem cells (WJ-MSCs), which are found in the umbilical cord and are a rich source of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). These MSCs possess remarkable properties that make them an invaluable tool in regenerative medicine, tissue engineering, and immunomodulation. This page will delve into the advantages, applications, and extraction and utilization methods of these mesenchymal stem cells.

Wharton’s jelly, a thick, gelatinous substance primarily composed of collagen, serves as a cushion and protector for the umbilical cord’s three blood vessels, preventing them from compression or bending. In addition, it aids the vessels in their delivery of oxygen, blood sugar, and amino acids to the fetus while in the womb. Their critical role in maintaining a successful pregnancy and potential benefits post-birth make it an important element in reproductive health.

What Is the Location of Wharton’s Jelly?

We know that this is a type of mesenchymal stem cell found only in the umbilical cord, located between the inner membrane of the placenta and the umbilical vessels. Other types of mesenchymal stem cells can be harvested from different areas of the body, for instance autologous bone marrow concentrate or fat tissue.

Research suggests that MSCs obtained from Wharton’s jelly are potentially more effective than those taken from adult tissues as a health treatment. This is highly significant, as these MSCs can be collected non-invasively, and in an easy manner after childbirth.

Many experts consider MSCs derived from Wharton’s jelly to be the gold standard for MSC-based therapies, due to two key factors.

What are Some Clinical Applications of WJ-MSCs?

Some Clinical Applications of WJ-MSCs?Due to their capacity to differentiate into a variety of cell types and their immunomodulatory properties, Wharton’s jelly stem cells have potential for therapeutic usage. Possible clinical applications of these cells include:

Regenerative Medicine:

  • Tissue Repair: Wharton’s jelly stem cells can differentiate into various cell types, including bone, cartilage, muscle, and fat cells. This makes them valuable for tissue repair and regeneration in conditions like osteoarthritis, cartilage defects, and muscle injuries.
  • Wound Healing: The cells’ regenerative and anti-inflammatory properties are beneficial for promoting wound healing in chronic ulcers, burns, and other skin injuries.

Neurological Disorders:

  • Neuroprotection: Wharton’s jelly stem cells have shown potential for protecting nerve cells and promoting neural regeneration in neurodegenerative diseases like Parkinson’s, Alzheimer’s, and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS).
  • Stroke: These cells may aid in post-stroke recovery by supporting brain tissue repair and reducing inflammation.

Autoimmune and Inflammatory Diseases:

  • Multiple Sclerosis (MS): Wharton’s jelly stem cells’ immunomodulatory effects are being explored for managing MS and reducing disease progression.
  • Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA): The cells’ ability to modulate the immune response makes them candidates for managing inflammation in RA.

Cardiovascular Disorders:

  • Myocardial Infarction (Heart Attack): Wharton’s jelly stem cells have been investigated for their potential to promote cardiac tissue regeneration and functional recovery after a heart attack.
  • Peripheral Artery Disease: These cells could support blood vessel repair and blood flow restoration in conditions like peripheral artery disease.


  • Type 1 Diabetes: Wharton’s jelly stem cells’ immunomodulatory properties could help manage immune-mediated destruction of insulin-producing cells in type 1 diabetes.

Liver Diseases:

  • Liver Cirrhosis: The cells’ regenerative abilities might be utilized to promote liver tissue regeneration and reduce fibrosis in cirrhotic livers.

Lung Disorders:

  • Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD): Wharton’s jelly stem cells’ anti-inflammatory effects could potentially alleviate inflammation in the lungs of COPD patients.

Orthopedic Applications:

  • Bone Fractures: The cells’ capacity to differentiate into bone-forming cells could aid in the healing of fractures and bone defects.

It is essential to consult with medical professionals and stay abreast of the latest advancements in stem cell research if you are considering or looking into stem cell therapies. Moreover, the regulatory environment and ethical questions will also have a considerable impact in deciding the scope and permission of these treatments.

Benefits of Using Wharton’s Jelly Mesenchymal Stem Cells for Stem Cell Therapy

Benefits of Using Wharton’s Jelly Mesenchymal Stem CellsThe use of Wharton’s jelly mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) has garnered much attention in the medical field as they offer a plethora of potential therapeutic benefits. Some of the advantages of employing these cells are:

  1. Abundant Source: Wharton’s jelly, the gelatinous substance within the umbilical cord, is a rich source of mesenchymal stem cells. These cells are easily accessible and can be obtained non-invasively after birth without harming the mother or the baby.
  2. Low Immunogenicity: WJ-MSCs have low expression of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) antigens, making them less likely to trigger immune responses when transplanted into a different individual. This immunomodulatory property reduces the risk of rejection and enables allogeneic transplantation (from a donor to a recipient).
  3. Immunomodulation: WJ-MSCs possess strong immunomodulatory properties, meaning they can regulate and suppress immune responses. This makes them suitable for treating autoimmune diseases and reducing inflammation in various conditions.
  4. Multipotency: WJ-MSCs can differentiate into multiple cell types, including bone, cartilage, fat, muscle, and other connective tissues. This multipotency makes them valuable for tissue repair, regeneration, and engineering.
  5. Minimal Ethical Concerns: Obtaining WJ-MSCs does not involve the destruction of embryos or invasive procedures. This makes them an ethical source of stem cells for research and therapeutic purposes.
  6. Ease of Expansion: WJ-MSCs can be readily expanded in culture while maintaining their properties. This ensures that a sufficient number of cells can be generated for therapeutic applications
  7. Versatility in Applications: Due to their diverse benefits, WJ-MSCs have been explored for a wide range of clinical applications, including tissue regeneration, wound healing, autoimmune diseases, cardiovascular disorders, neurological conditions, and more.

Methods of Extracting Wharton’s Jelly Stem Cells for Treatment

The following steps must be taken to extract Wharton’s Jelly stem cells and unlock their potential:

#1 Umbilical cord collection: Once a donor has given their informed consent, a sterile process is carried out to collect the umbilical cord at the time of delivery. The samples are then tested for any infectious diseases.

#2 Enzymatic digestion: Enzymes such as collagenase and hyaluronidase are used to break down the extracellular matrix and release the stem cells from the minced umbilical cord tissue.

#3 Isolation and culture: Centrifugation is employed to filter cord tissue and isolate stem cells, and then their numbers are expanded by culturing them in a suitable growth medium prior to utilization in research or stem cell therapies.

The unique properties of Wharton’s Jelly stem cells, combined with their ethical and accessible source, make them an attractive option for researchers and clinical applications of stem cell therapies at Stem Cell Care India. Such potential applications include advancing regenerative medicine, tissue engineering and immunomodulation. As our comprehension of these cells continues to develop, they will likely have a greater effect on improving human health.

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