Mesenchymal cells or MSCs are non-hematopoietic stromal cells that are adept of differentiating into, and contribute to the regeneration of mesenchymal tissues such as bone, cartilage, muscle, ligament, tendon and adipose. MSCs are rare in bone marrow, demonstrating 1 in 10,000 nucleated cells. Although not eternal, they have the capability to expand manifold in culture while retaining their growth and multi lineage potential. MSCs are acknowledged by the expression of numerous molecules including CD105 (SH2) and CD73 (SH3/4) and are negative for the hematopoietic markers CD34, CD45, and CD14. The properties of MSCs make these cells potentially idyllic contenders for tissue engineering. It has been publicized that MSCs, when transplanted systemically, are able to voyage to sites of injury in animals, suggesting that MSCs have migratory capacity. However, the mechanisms underlying the migration of these cells remain vague. Chemo kine receptors and their ligands and adhesion molecules play an imperative role in tissue-specific homing of leukocytes and have also been associated in trafficking of hematopoietic precursors into and through tissue. Quite a lot of studies have reported the serviceable expression of a number of chemokine receptors and adhesion molecules on human MSCs. Harnessing the migratory potential of MSCs by controlling their chemo kine-chemokine receptor interactions might be a powerful way to upsurge their aptitude to correct inherited maladies of mesenchymal tissues or facilitate tissue repair in vivo. The present review describes what is recognized about MSCs and their capability to home to tissues in conjunction with the associated molecular mechanisms involving chemo kine receptors and adhesion molecules.
The fact that MSCs can be differentiated into numerous diverse cell categories in vitro, their relative ease of expansion in culture and their immunologic characteristics,evidently make MSCs and MSC-like cells a promising source of stem cells for tissue repair and gene therapy.