Tissue injury happening after ischemic, toxic or inflammatory insults results in cell demise and perhaps to organ failure. The regeneration procedure taking place thereafter might lead to the complete repair of the impaired tissue or, in partial/altered remodeling, in tissue fibrosis and blemishing. This might depend on the intrinsic capability of diverse tissues to repair as well as on the entity and perseverance of the injury. In this situation, stem cell therapy can be observed as a promising choice in two diverse ways. The first is as a “support” mechanism, in which stem cells are used to promote complete tissue repair and avoid damaging fibrosis. The other is the “replace” option, in which stem cells segregate and substitute for impaired cells, providing an alternative to organ transplantation. This is of specific need in therapy for chronic organ failure.
Multi potent marrow stromal cells are the most established kind of stem cells for organ repair and the most progressive in clinical development. The conceivable applications of multi potent marrow stromal cells in the repair of kidney, heart and brain were discoursed and also their potential negative effects were discussed. A whole view of the complex identity of these multi potent cells, identified as per vascular cells in diverse organs, is provided. They recommend a role for per vascular stem cells as originators of mesenchymal stem cells and contemplate their possible physiological role in tissue regeneration.
There is a common agreement that the mechanism of the beneficial effect of multi potent stromal cells in organ repair is owing to a “support” mechanism rather than to their differentiation. In this light, it was reviewed that the intriguing likelihood of using bio products of stem cells such as micro vesicles, in place of the cells to support renewal in impaired organs, such as the liver and kidney, and offer a novel, and perhaps easier, methodology to stem cell therapy.
Considering the option of “replacing” lacking or deceased cells, pluripotent stem cells of adult or embryonic origin might be apt contenders by virtue of their likelihood to segregate in every organ-specific cell, consequently offering functional repair. We present the role of germline-derived pluripotent stem cells in liver, heart and brain ailments and their future potentialities, and a similar methodology is proposed by us in a review focused on renal regeneration.