What Is Autism And Can Stem Cells Play Significant Role In Treating This Disorder?
What is autism?
Autism is a band of illnesses characterized by noticeable abnormalities in communication and social interactions. Two common unfailing findings are related in kids with this disorder are reduced oxygenation in particular zones of the brain and a chronic immunologic ally mediated inflammatory situation in the gut.
What is the scientific justification behind using stem cells to cure autism?
Present investigative therapies for autism aim to reverse these aberrations via administration of antibiotics, anti‐inflammatory agents and hyperbaric oxygen. Regrettably, none of these methodologies address the root causes of oxygen deprivation and intestinal swelling. The justification behind treating autism with umbilical cord tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells is that autism, and its gradation of severity, has been considerably correlated inflammatory and neuro-inflammatory cytokines including macrophage-derived chemokine (MDC) and thymus and activation-regulated chemokine (TARC). Intravenous administration of umbilical cord MSCs has been displayed in multiple clinical trials to decline swelling. Declining swelling in the autistic patient might assuage symptoms of autism.
What do we know about autism in detail?
Autism is the name used to designate a range of neuro developmental ailments that damagingly affect brain development and cause life-long shortfalls in communication, social and behavioral skills. There are four ailments that fall below the integrated heading of autism spectrum disorder (ASD): autism (also referred to as classical autism), Asperger’s disorder, childhood disintegrative disorder and pervasive developmental disorder not otherwise quantified. Kids with autism appear normal at birth, but within the first 36 months symptoms begin to appear. Boys are four times more vulnerable than girls. There is no single assessment to identify autism. Rather, health specialists use physical investigations, personal histories, clinical assessment tools and perhaps hereditary testing to make a positive diagnosis. The exact reason of ASD remains a mystery but increasing evidence points to both environmental and hereditary factors. The risk of getting ASD is 37-90% but there are also several mutations related with ASD that might be present in a family member for the first time. Scientists have acknowledged chromosomal aberrations and single gene disorders that share symptoms with ASD and hundreds of ASD-linked genes that they think may confer vulnerability. Researchers are aiming to comprehend how ASD-linked genes work. Some of the genes are identified to connect neurons in the brain and others are involved in the immune system. One theory is that the brain might develop atypically if ASD-linked genes are active at the incorrect time and place as the fetus develops. Treatments can be behavioral, nutritional and pharmacological. Behavioral intrusions and social skills training seem to offer the maximum advantage but they are not able to rectify all the symptoms, so medications are also recommended.
How can stem cells play their role?
Presently, the field isn’t ready to utilize stem cells as a source of neurons for transplantation into patients with autism. Rather, stem cells are being used to make models of autism for the purpose of analyzing the effects of possible newfangled drugs. Scientists are also examining how the immune system and inflammation are involved in the growth of ASD, and whether stem cell therapy in India for autism could help play a role by checking the immune system in patients.
Are there lots of groups working on developing a stem cell therapy?
There are countless research crews around the world working to comprehend how stem cells could be applied to autism. Jointly, these groups have acknowledged making human models of autism a priority as animal models do not completely mimic autism as it unfolds in humans. One of the challenges is finding a worthy source of neurons for the purpose of forming laboratory models. This is not so simple because it is not possible to eliminate neurons from a living individual. This is where induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells might be able to assist. Their discovery in 2006 was nothing but a revolutionary invention. Doctor who carried out that research managed to fold back the clock on adult skin cells and reprogram (induce) them to a more young-looking state. The cells are called ‘pluripotent’ because they are no longer sealed into making only one kind of cell but rather can make a multiplicity of diverse varieties of cells, including neurons. The iPS cells made from the skin of individuals with autism can be grown into neurons for laboratory models.
The street to finding a stem cell therapy for autism is cemented with several challenges that will take time to overcome, but researchers are learning a lot from scrutinizing autism spectrum disorders and disorders that share features with autism, such as Rett syndrome, Fragile X and Timothy syndrome. As the joint outcomes shed light on potential mechanisms of autism, they also emphasize the exclusivity of autism from individual to individual and the challenges of capturing the catholic spectrum of autism in human models.