Stem Cell Delivery Method
A stem cell transplant is a procedure that infuses healthy cells, called stem cells, in the body to replace the damaged or diseased cells. Bone marrow transplants are increasingly being used to treat certain types of cancer.
If the patient’s bone marrow is not capable of producing healthy stem cells, then cells can be borrowed from some other person. There are some major ways in which stem cells can be implanted. They are
Intravenous Administration: Intravenous administration is the IV infusion of stem cells into the veins. A slow drip of Mannitol is infused in the blood with the purpose of expanding the blood volume in the central nervous system; so that maximum cells reach the targeted area. Only a qualified health care professional should administer IV medications.
IV administration usually takes about about 20-30 minutes.
Intrathecal Administration (Lumbar Puncture): Ideal for neurological conditions this procedure involves injecting stem cells directly into the spinal canal or lumbar puncture past the blood-brain barrier. This enables them to reach the spinal cord and brain. All lumbar puncture procedures are conducted in an airy room under sterile conditions.
This procedure usually takes about 30 minutes.
Intramuscular Administration: Stem cells are injected directly in to the muscle. It is very safe method and does not require anaesthesia. This is particularly used when small amount of cells are to be administered.
Thighs, knees and hips are the ideal sites for administering the injection of Mesenchymal Stem Cells. The cells reach the targeted part and start the rejuvenation and repair process.
Intra-arterial Administration via catheter: In this procedure, stem cells are inserted into the artery via a thin catheter directly into the artery. An X-ray imaging a catheter is directed towards the diseased part to ensure maximum cell delivery. This type of infusion is particularly used for vascular organs such as pancreas, heart or kidney.
Retrobulbar Infusion of Cells: In this technique, a local aesthetic is injected into the retrobulbar space, the area located behind the globe of the eye. A concentrated number of stem cells are injected in the targeted area to maximise output. This administration procedure is used to treat eye disorders such as Glaucoma, Macular Degeneration and others.
Intravitreal Infusion of Cells: Treatment of retinal diseases by intravitreal injection (IVI) has revolutionised the field of ophthalmology. Human eye is filled with a jelly like substance known as “Vitreous”. IVI is the direct shot of stem cells into the vitreous near the retina at the back of the eye.
A number of IVI protocols exist in terms of anesthetics, aseptic technique, use of prophylactic antibiotics and post-injection monitoring.
Liberation Angioplasty for Multiple Sclerosis CCSVI – Two types of CCSVI treatments are common: balloon angioplasty and stenting.
In balloon angioplasty, the vein is opened by inflating a cylindrically shaped balloon inside the vein for a short time period. The balloon near the tip of the catheter is moved into the stenosis and inflated. This balloon is inflated and deflated several times to ensure the desired degree of patency. This is an extremely critical procedure.
Stenting is similar to angioplasty but uses a different type of catheter. A stent is a metal-mesh tube attached near the end of catheter so that it can be place inside the vein and opened. It is considered a more permanent solution than angioplasty.