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Stem Cell Treatment for Cardiovascular

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Diseases of the heart are called cardiovascular disease. The heart is not like any other muscle in the body. It needs oxygen and an adequate blood supply for the proper functioning. In addition to other parts of the body, it also pumps blood to coronary arteries. These arteries originate from the base of the aorta and the branch out along the surface of the heart.

Heart failure: Heart failure does not mean that the heart stops beating. This disease also sometimes called congestive heart failure, means the heart is not pumping blood the way it should. The heart keeps working but the body’s need for blood and oxygen is not being met. If not treated, heart failure can get worse. It is very important to seek medical help as fast as possible if your loved one has heart failure. You should follow your doctor’s advice.

Arrhythmia: An abnormal rhythm of the heart is termed as Arrhythmia. There are various types of arrhythmias. The heart can beat too slow, too fast or irregularly. Bradycardia is when the heart rate is less than 60 beats per minute. Tachycardia is when the heart rate is more than 100 beats per minute. An arrhythmia can affect how well the heart works. The heart may not be able to pump enough blood to meet the body’s needs.

Heart valve problems: When heart valves do not open enough to allow the blood to flow through as it should, it’s called stenosis. When the heart valves don’t close properly and allow blood to leak through, it’s called regurgitation. When the valve leaflets bulge or prolapse back into the upper chamber, it’s a condition called mitral valve prolapse. When this happens, they may not close properly. This allows blood to flow backward through them. Discover more about the roles your heart valves play in healthy circulation. Learn more about heart valve disease.

Many people with heart muscle disease, or cardiomyopathy, have no symptoms or only minor symptoms, and live a normal life. Other people develop symptoms, which progress and worsen as heart function worsens.

Symptoms of cardiovascular disease may occur at any age and may include:

Chest pain or pressure (occurs usually with exercise or physical activity, but can also occur with rest or after meals)

Heart failure symptoms

Swelling of the lower extremities

Fatigue

Fainting

Some people also have arrhythmias. These can lead to sudden death in a small number of people with cardiomyopathy.

Chest pain which is different from angina (chest pain caused by coronary artery disease); it may be sharp and located in the center of the chest. The pain may radiate to the neck and occasionally, the arms and back. It is made worse when lying down, taking a deep breath in, coughing, or swallowing and relieved by sitting forward.

Low-grade fever

Increased heart rate

Limited ability to exercise

Lack of energy

Shortness of breath (difficulty breathing during normal activities; you may notice this most when you are doing your normal daily activities or when you lie down flat in bed.

Weakness or dizziness

Discomfort in your chest; you may feel a pressure or weight in your chest with activity or when going out in cold air.

Palpitations (this may feel like a rapid heart rhythm, irregular heartbeat, skipped beats, or a flip-flop feeling in your chest.)

In case of heart failure, the doctor may perform a series of tests to figure out the cause and severity of heart failure. These include:

Blood tests: These look at the health of your kidneys and thyroid gland. They also check your cholesterol levels and whether you have anemia, when you don’t have enough healthy red blood cells.

B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) blood test: BNP is a substance your body produces when heart failure develops. The level of BNP in the blood increases when heart failure symptoms worsen, and decreases when the heart failure is stable. The BNP level in a person with heart failure — even someone whose condition is stable — may be higher than in a person with a healthy heart.

Chest X-ray: This shows the size of your heart. It also lets your doctor know if fluid is built up around the heart and lungs.

Echocardiogram:  This test, often called an “echo,” shows your heart’s movement. During an echo, a wand is placed on the surface of your chest. This wand sends ultrasound waves that show pictures of the heart’s valves and chambers. Those pictures allow your doctor to look at the pumping action of your heart. Echo is often combined with tests called Doppler ultrasound and colour Doppler to check blood flow across the heart’s valves.

Your doctor will also want to know your ejection fraction, or EF. This is a measurement of how much blood is pumped out of the heart with each heartbeat.

Ejection Fraction (EF): A normal EF is between 55% and 75%, which means that over half of the blood volume is pumped out of the heart with each beat. Heart failure may happen because of a low EF (your doctor may call it systolic heart failure), or from another cause, like valve disorder or from diastolic dysfunction (the heart’s inability to relax). People with diastolic dysfunction can have a normal EF.

Latest researches have revealed that MSCs can help restore Myelin of nervous system, improving symptoms and prolonging lives. Steroids and other disease modifying drugs cannot cover all the symptoms and are aimed to manage only specific symptoms. Again, the concern of critical side effects of drugs is also there. With MSC treatment, there is no such concern.

In StemCellCareIndia, we use the unique technology of Mesenchymal stem cells extracted from Wharton’s jelly (WJ) for treating heart diseases.  WJ-MSCs offer cost-effective and pain-free collection method that may be cryogenically stored, and are extremely favourable for tissue engineering purpose. They might help in the three prominent ways – prevent damage, repair damage and develop new medicines. The treatment will take place in multiple steps comprising of

  • Qualification for the treatment: Our experts will investigate your past medical history and symptoms to assess the severity of your condition. A series of tests will be performed to understand the stage of disease. As per the test results, our experts will counsel the patient for further process of the procedure.
  • Source Extraction: With guidance and approval from the physician, the source of extraction will be decided. In general, WJ-MSCs are the most potent allogenic sources available. Stem cells from a healthy person (the donor) are transferred to the patient’s body. A bone marrow donor is considered for allogenic stem cell transplantation. A scraping from the inside of the patient and his or her sibling’s cheek is tested to determine tissue type. An expert will examine to identity Human Leukocyte Antigens (HLAs). If the HLA on the donor cells are identical or similar, the transplant is more likely to be successful.
  • Laboratory Processing: The extracted samples will be sent to government approved cGMP laboratory for processing. The sample manipulation will take place in a state-of-art facility in compliance with the ISO and GMP standards and using the latest technologies. The client will receive a third party certificate from internationally accredited lab for quality purpose.
  • Stem Cell Implantation: Once the stem cells are ready to be implanted, the doctor will identify the most potent method of infusion based on the patient’s physical and mental well being.

 

Treatment Aftercare: The patients will be asked to visit the doctors for reclamation therapies such as routine checkups, counselling, etc for speedy recovery.

1.What is the burden of cardiovascular disease?

An estimated 17.3 million people die of cardiovascular diseases every year.  80% of the deaths occur in low- and middle-income countries.

2.What causes cardiovascular disease?

There are many risk factors that contribute to the development of cardiovascular disease.  Some people are born with conditions that predispose them to heart disease and stroke, but most people who develop cardiovascular disease do so because of a combination of factors such as poor diet, lack of physical activity and smoking, to name just three.  The more risk factors you expose yourself to, the higher the chance of developing cardiovascular disease. Many of the risk factors for cardiovascular disease cause problems because they lead to atherosclerosis.

Atherosclerosis is the narrowing and thickening of arteries. Atherosclerosis develops for years without causing symptoms.  It can happen in any part of the body.  Around the heart, it is known as coronary artery disease, in the legs it is known as peripheral arterial disease.

The narrowing and thickening of the arteries is due to the deposition of fatty material, cholesterol and other substances in the walls of blood vessels. The deposits are known as plaques. The rupture of a plaque can lead to stroke or a heart attack.

3.What is cholesterol?

Cholesterol is a waxy, fat-like substance used by the body to build cell walls and for making several essential hormones. Your liver produces cholesterol and you absorb it from the animal fats you eat.

Cholesterol is carried through the blood by particles called lipoproteins. There are two types: low-density lipoproteins (LDL) and high-density lipoproteins (HDL). The former carries the cholesterol around the body in the blood and the latter transports cholesterol out of the blood into the liver.

When cholesterol is too high, or the levels of the two types are out of balance (dyslipidaemia), the cholesterol can clog the arteries affecting the flow of the blood.

4.What are triglycerides?

Triglycerides are fats found in the blood that are important for muscle energy.  They travel through the blood in lipoproteins. As triglyceride levels rise, HDL cholesterol levels fall. High levels of of triglyceride increase the risk for heart disease. In rare cases, very high levels can lead to pancreatitis. Conditions that may cause high triglycerides include obesity, poorly controlled diabetes, drinking too much alcohol, hypothryroidism, and kidney disease.

5.What is the connection between high blood pressure (hypertension) and heart disease?

Blood moving through your arteries pushes against the arterial walls; this force is measured as blood pressure. High blood pressure (hypertension) occurs when very small arteries (arterioles) tighten.  Your heart has to work harder to pump blood through the smaller space and the pressure inside the vessels grows.  The constant excess pressure on the artery walls weakens them making them more susceptible to atherosclerosis.

6.How is coronary heart disease diagnosed?

There are a number of ways to diagnose coronary heart disease. Your physician will probably use a number to make a definitive diagnosis.

A coronary angiogram uses a dye inserted into your arteries and an x-ray to see how the blood flows through your heart. The picture taken, the angiogram, will show any atherosclerosis.

Another test is an electrocardiogram.  This test records the electrical activity of your heart.  An electrocardiogram measures the rate and regularity of heartbeats, the size and position of the heart chambers, the presence of any damage to the heart, and the effects of drugs or devices used to regulate the heart. It is a non-invasive procedure.

 

7.How are smoking and heart disease linked?

Smoking damages the lining of blood vessels, increases fatty deposits in the arteries, increases blood clotting, adversely affects blood lipid levels, and promotes coronary artery spasm. Nicotine accelerates the heart rate and raises blood pressure.

8.Does diet play a part in the development of heart disease?

Diet plays a significant role in protecting or predisposing people to heart disease. Diets high in animal fat, low in fresh vegetables and fruit, and high in alcohol have been shown to increase the risk of heart disease.

Adopting a diet low in fat and salt has a protective effect over the long term. This means whole grains, fruits, and vegetables.

 9.Aren’t women protected from heart disease because of estrogen?

Estrogen does help raise good HDL cholesterol so protecting women, but once through the menopause as many women as men are affected by heart disease: but if a woman suffers from diabetes or has raised levels of triglycerides that cancels out the positive effect of estrogen.

10.How do the symptoms of heart attack differ between men and women?

The symptoms of heart attack in a man are intense chest pain, pain in the left arm or jaw and difficulty breathing.

A woman may have some of the same symptoms, but her pain may be more diffuse, spreading to the shoulders, neck, arms, abdomen and even her back. A woman may experience pain more like indigestion. The pain may not be consistent. There may not be pain but unexplained anxiety, nausea, dizziness, palpitations and cold sweat. A woman’s heart attack may have been preceded by unexplained fatigue.

Women also tend to have more severe first heart attacks that more frequently lead to death, compared to men.

 11.Is heart disease hereditary?

Heart disease can run in some families. But even if you inherit the risks factors that predispose you to heart disease, such as high blood cholesterol, high blood pressure, diabetes, or being overweight, there are measures you can take that will help you avoid developing cardiovascular disease.

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